Increasing Sidman avoidance behaviour: an animal model
Avoidance is behaviour that prevents or postpones the occurrence of an aversive stimulus; whereas, escape is behaviour that terminates an aversive stimulus. There are two types of avoidance, both of which prevent an aversive stimulus from occurring. Standard avoidance involves a warning stimulus that predicts an aversive stimulus, reinforced by the termination of the warning stimulus. Alternatively, Sidman or free-operant avoidance does not include a warning stimulus and it is unknown what the exact reinforcing properties are that maintain it. Previous research has found that Betta splendens (Siamese fighting fish) may not engage in Sidman avoidance whereas other fish species including Carassius auratus (goldfish) do. The present study looked at whether Betta splendens could be taught Sidman avoidance when water disturbance is the aversive stimulus, by prompting the fish to emit the avoidance response of crossing over between the two sides of an experimental tank in 30second intervals, and reinforcing the behaviour with a mirror. Results showed an increase in the frequency of independent (i.e., unprompted) crossovers between the sides of the experimental tank resulting in avoidance of water disturbance, an aversive stimulus for these fish. The increase in responding was maintained for one of the three subjects when reinforcement was removed, suggesting that this species can learn Sidman avoidance.
reinforcement, learned helplessness, Betta splendens, Sidman avoidance