Effect of consuming novel foods consisting high oleic canola oil, barley β-glucan, and DHA on cardiovascular disease risk in humans: the CONFIDENCE (Canola Oil and Fibre with DHA Enhanced) study – protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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Ramprasath, Vanu R
Thandapilly, Sijo J
Yang, Shuo
Abraham, Anjalika
Jones, Peter J H
Ames, Nancy
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Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been identified as a major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current recommendations for dietary management of people with MetS involve quantitative and qualitative modifications of food intake, such as high consumption of vegetables, fruits, and whole grain foods. The results from our previous human trials revealed the potential of the dietary components high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO)-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high molecular weight barley β-glucan individually in managing CVD risk factors. Foods with a combination of HOCO-DHA and barley β-glucan have never been tested for their effects on CVD risk. The objective is to determine the effects of consuming novel foods HOCO-DHA, and barley β-glucan on managing CVD risk factors in people with MetS. Methods/Design We are conducting a randomized, single-blind crossover trial with four treatment phases of 28 days each separated by a 4-week washout interval. Participants (n=35) will be provided with weight-maintaining, healthy balanced diet recommendations according to their energy requirements during the intervention periods. Participants will receive muffins and cookies as treatment foods in a random order and will consume at least one meal per day at the research center under supervision. The four treatments include muffins and cookies consisting of (1) all-purpose flour and HOCO-DHA (50 g/day); (2) barley flour (4.36 g/day of β-glucan) and a blend of sunflower oil, safflower oil, and butter as control oil (50 g/day); (3) barley flour (4.36 g/day of β-glucan) and HOCO-DHA (50 g/day; dosage of DHA would be 3 g/day); and (4) all-purpose flour and control oil (50 g/day). At the beginning and end of each phase, we will evaluate anthropometrics; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; blood lipid profile; low-density lipoprotein subfractions and particle size; 10-year Framingham CVD risk score; inflammatory status; and plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles, fecal microbiome, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Conclusion Cholesterol synthesis will also be studied, using a stable isotope approach. The proposed study will lead to innovation of novel food products, which may result in improvement in the overall cardiovascular health of humans. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT02091583 . Date of registration: 12 March 2014.
Trials. 2015 Oct 31;16(1):489