Depression and anxiety in inflammatory bowel disease: A review of comorbidity and management
Graff, Lesley A.
Walker, John R.
Bernstein, Charles N.
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While there has been a great deal of speculation over the years on the importance of emotional factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it is only in the last decade or so that studies with stronger designs have been available to clarify the nature of this relationship. This review considers recent evidence on the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in IBD, the role of these disorders as a risk factor for IBD onset, the degree to which they affect the course of the IBD, and the contribution of corticosteroid treatment to psychiatric symptom onset. There is evidence that anxiety and depression are more common in patients with IBD and that the symptoms of these conditions are more severe during periods of active disease. The few studies that address the issue of anxiety and depression as risk factors for IBD do not yet provide enough information to support definite conclusions. There is evidence, however, that the course of the disease is worse in depressed patients. Treatment with corticosteroids can induce mood disorders or other psychiatric symptoms. The second part of the review focuses on patient management issues for those with comorbid anxiety or depression. Practical approaches to screening are discussed, and are recommended for routine use in the IBD clinic, especially during periods of active disease. We review evidence-based pharmacological and psychological treatments for anxiety and depression and discuss practical considerations in treating these conditions in the context of IBD to facilitate overall management of the IBD patient.