Laboratory study of anchor ice evolution around rocks and on gravel beds
A series of laboratory studies was carried out on anchor ice evolution around rocks and on gravel beds. Different arrangements of rocks were set on the flume bed, and two digital cameras were used to monitor the growth forms of anchor ice around the rocks. Evolution forms of anchor ice on gravel beds under different flow conditions were recorded. The results agree well with previous laboratory results. It was observed that anchor ice growth occurred mainly by frazil ice attachment. Thermal growth was also detected through the analysis of temperature curves recorded during experiments, although it is not readily observed from the digital images. In addition, anchor ice density was measured during the experiments. The relationships between flow parameters, such as the Froude number and the Reynolds number, and the density of anchor ice are explored and discussed.
supercooling, thermal growth, anchor ice densities, evolution, turbulence
0315-1468; CAN J CIVIL ENG, 2007, vol.34, no.1, pp.46-55.