Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains and Investigation of Bread Extracts after Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion
Content of free- (FPC) and bound- phenolics (BPC) significantly (p<0.05) increased during mixing, fermenting and baking. Bread crust and crumb contained the highest FPC and BPC, respectively. Antioxidant activities (AOA) followed the trends of their respective phenolic contents. HPLC analysis demonstrated that different phenolic acids showed various responses to the bread-making process. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) was significantly (p<0.05) reduced through mixing and baking, but fermentation elevated the levels. Anthocyanin extract of purple wheat exerted higher AOA than those of common wheat. Digested purple wheat extracts after in-vitro digestion demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher AOA than common wheat. During in-vitro testing, extracts exhibited concentration-dependent effects, while the use of different cell lines exhibited varying levels of cellular antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties. Purple wheat demonstrated higher cytoprotectivity and cellular AOA than those of common wheat. Our findings suggest that purple wheat has the potential to act as functional food in bakery products.
Purple wheat, Bread-making, Phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, in-vitro digestion, cell culture