People and cigarettes: organizational history, culture and the management of the U.S.-Canada border
In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) in the United States (U.S.) the U.S. and Canada both restructured the institutions responsible for the management of the U.S.-Canada border. The United States created Customs and Border Protection (U.S. CBP) under the Department of Homeland Security in 2002 and Canada established the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) under the Ministry of Public Safety in 2003. Prior to these reforms, in both the U.S. and Canada, the border was under the jurisdiction of multiple government agencies and departments, including those associated with immigration, customs and policing. This thesis utilizes the concept of path dependency and the organizational behavior model to examine the post-9/11 institutional changes and the extent to which they impacted the management of the U.S.-Canada border after 9/11.
border, U.S.-Canada, customs, immigration