Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on cardiomyocyte abnormalities in diabetic cardiomyopathy
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is defined as changes in the structure and function of the myocardium that occur in diabetic patients in the absence of other cardiovascular risk factors. Our laboratory has shown that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - a naturally-occurring polyunsaturated fatty acid with multiple health benefits) prevents endothelin-1-induced myocyte hypertrophy in vitro, as well as cardiac hypertrophy in vivo using a rodent model of spontaneously hypertensive heart failure. These cardioprotective effects of CLA were mediated through activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR isomers α and γ) and stimulation of diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ). Thus, the aims of this study were to (i) determine the effect of CLA on hyperglycemia-induced structural and functional abnormalities of cardiomyocytes, and (ii) assess the role of PPAR-γ and DGK. High glucose treatment induced hypertrophy of primary adult cardiomyocytes, as indicated by augmented cell size and protein synthesis compared to untreated cardiomyocytes. The hyperglycemia-induced hypertrophy was attenuated by pretreatment with CLA (30 µM). The ability of CLA to prevent hyperglycemia-induced hypertrophy was suppressed by GW9662 (1 µM) and R59022 (10 μM), pharmacological inhibitors of PPAR-γ and DGK, respectively. In addition to structural abnormalities, high glucose impaired contractile function of adult cardiomyocytes as measured by maximal velocity of shortening, maximal velocity of relengthening, and peak shortening. Hyperglycemia-induced contractile dysfunction was likewise prevented by pretreatment with CLA (30 µM). Collectively, these findings support the idea that hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction elicited by high glucose were prevented by CLA. The antihypertrophic actions of CLA are mediated, at least in part, by activation of PPAR-γ and DGK.
conjugated linoleic acid, diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiomyocyte