Association of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes with tuberculosis disease in two Canadian cohorts
In Canada, and more specifically in Canadian-born Aboriginals and foreign born populations, high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality. The presence or absence of specific killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes, individually or in conjunction, may be associated with tuberculosis (active, latent, or uninfected disease status) as well as ethnicity of an individual. It is hypothesized that the differences in KIR profiles, gene frequencies, and/or haplotypes in Canadian-born Aboriginal, Canadian-born non-Aboriginal, and foreign born individuals elicits a differential activation or inhibition profile, resulting in differential cytokine expression and eventually contributes to the outcome of TB infection. In this study we examined the enrichment or depletion of KIR genes in different ethnic populations in Manitoba with special focus on active, latent, and uninfected TB status. In addition, we sought to explore the statistical correlation between TB status and inhibitory/stimulatory KIR haplotypes.