Adverbial and argument-doubling clauses in Cree

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Long, Michelle Anne
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Cree has been described as a pronominal argument language. This classification implies that argument positions in Cree are not available to overt NPs. Instead, argument positions are located within the verbal complex, and are filled by non-overt pronominal arguments. Overt NPs are located in non-argument positions. This thesis argues that subordinate clauses are also located in non-argument positions. While this might suggest that pronominal argument languages would lack complement clauses (i.e., no argument position for a clause) there is evidence to show that subordinate clauses can be divided into those with complement-like properties, and those which have adjunct-like properties. Unlike previous treatments of subordinate clauses, where these clauses were differentiated by a difference in structural position (i.e., argument versus adjunct) this analysis does not base the division on structural position. Following a distinction found in overt NPs, I propose that subordinate clauses are differentiated by whether or not they are an argument-doubling expression. Argument-doubling clauses display complement-like properties, while non-argument-doubling (adverbial) clauses show adjunct-like properties. We will examine differences in distribution, proximate re-assignment and extraction between these two types of subordinate clause. I claim that Argument-doubling expressions are included within the domain of the argument with which they are referentially-linked. This proposal accounts for the restrictions on proximate re-assignment, as well as suggesting a new perspective on the copying-to-object construction in Cree.