Natural regeneration of white spruce in western North America with specific reference to Western Canada
Hrubeniuk, Jewel N.
The main objective of this report was to provide a review of the information available on the natural regeneration of white spruce in western North America with specific reference to the prairie provinces of Canada. Information was drawn from relevant studies in areas such as Alaska, British Columbia, Ontario and the northwestern United States. The methods used involved standard techniques for research, review and assembly of the literature. In general, scarifications in combination with some type of shelterwood system along with herbicidal or mechanical control of competing vegetation in establishment years is the most efficient and economical means of spruce natural regeneration. Prescribed burning is not generally supported as a treatment as this often disrupts soil qualities such as moisture and pH rendering it an unsuitable seedbed for spruce seedlings. Germination and survival are favored on mineral seedbeds and seem reduced on burned areas. Germination delays are also a common consequence of burned sites. In all, white spruce requires specific environmental conditions and requirements for natural regeneration. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)