Undan snjobreidunni (what lies beneath the snow) revealing the contributions of Icelandic pioneer women to adult education in Manitoba 1875-1914
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Though women have been involved in adult education throughout Canada’s history, their contributions have gone unrecorded and lie hidden “beneath the snow”. This study used a qualitative historical research design to metaphorically “melt the snow”, to reveal both the women and their educational activities in five Icelandic pioneer settlements in Manitoba 1875-1914. Guided by an adaptation of the Kidd (1979) conceptual framework, data from primary and secondary sources was categorized onto a matrix for coding and analysis according to type of learning (formal, nonformal and informal) as well as seven areas of influence (people, events, ideas, outside Canada, communications, geography & climate and immigrant peoples). This process resulted in findings that foregrounded five Icelandic adult educators and revealed six themes of involvement by Icelandic pioneer women. The findings demonstrate the need to reexamine the adult education definitions and frameworks so that the contributions of women may be documented and valued.