Protective role of olive oil and its major component oleic acid in TNF-α induced remodeling subsequent to myocardial infarction in rats
Al-Shudiefat, Abd Al-Rahman
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Oxidative stress and inflammation are important factors involved in the progression of heart failure. An important cytokine produced during myocardial infarction (MI) is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). TNF-α may induce oxidative stress, cell damage, apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. Considering the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of extra-virgin olive oil and its major component (80%) oleic acid (OA), and their benefits to the cardiovascular system, we hypothesized that the negative effects of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of heart failure will be mitigated by olive oil consumption. This hypothesis was tested by examining the effects of a special diet supplemented with 10% olive oil, in coronary artery ligated animal model of MI. Corn oil (10%) supplementation was used as a control for matching caloric intake. Animals in the sham and ligated groups fed regular chow, olive oil, and corn oil were studied at 4 and 16 weeks post myocardial infarction (PMI). Mortality, diet consumption, weight gain and conduction system abnormalities were comparable among all ligated groups. Echocardiography showed that MI deteriorated cardiac function, and olive oil restored the function. At 16 weeks PMI, only corn oil fed groups showed significant increase in both total cholesterol and HDL. Corn oil was not able to offer protection to the heart, suggesting that the beneficial effects of olive oil are not due to increased caloric intake or increased HDL. MI increased myocardial TNF-α, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, pro-apoptotic protein expression (Bax, cleaved Caspase 3, cleaved PARP, TGFβ, Bnip3), cytochrome C release, MAP kinase activation (p38, JNK) and decreased anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL expression at both 4 and 16 weeks PMI, and these changes were modulated by olive oil. In order to further test the central role of TNF-α PMI, we examined the possible miti-gation of TNF-α induced changes by OA in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. TNF-α in-creased oxidative stress, cell damage, cell death, and apoptosis, while OA treatment miti-gated these TNF-α induced effects. We concluded that TNF-α is implicated in the progression of heart failure subsequent to MI and that OA in olive oil may prevent this progression, through its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and inotropic effects.