Show simple item record

dc.contributor.supervisor Peeler, Bryan (Political Studies) en_US
dc.contributor.author Lunn, Stephen
dc.date.accessioned 2021-05-05T14:43:39Z
dc.date.available 2021-05-05T14:43:39Z
dc.date.copyright 2021-05-02
dc.date.issued 2021-04-01 en_US
dc.date.submitted 2021-04-01T14:43:02Z en_US
dc.date.submitted 2021-05-02T20:47:30Z en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1993/35492
dc.description.abstract The Covid-19 Pandemic has highlighted how important the healthcare sector is as critical infrastructure. It has also revealed how vulnerable the healthcare critical infrastructure is to malicious cyber operations. The number of cyber operations against the healthcare sector has increased substantially since the onset of the pandemic, seemingly unregulated by international law, particularly jus ad bellum. This paper argues that cyber operations that target or intend to target healthcare critical infrastructure should be treated as a use of force and armed attack because any intentional disruption to business continuity can and will cause physical harm and potential loss of life. Using the 2017 WannaCry Ransomware attack on the United Kingdom as a case study, this paper analyzes four approaches to classifying a cyber operation as a use of force and armed attack. The first approach is the Instrument Based Approach, which emphasizes a textual reading of the United Nations Charter. The second approach is the Strict Liability Approach, which treats all cyber operations against critical infrastructure as an armed attack. Third, the Effects Based Approach endorsed by the Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyberspace, which emphasizes the scale and effect of a cyber operation. Fourth, the Cyber Physical System Approach, which emphasizes the intent of the attack. Finding these approaches insufficient, this paper advocates for a Healthcare Based Approach which would consider any cyber operation rising above the level of espionage on healthcare critical infrastructure as an armed attack. en_US
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject International Law en_US
dc.subject Cyberspace en_US
dc.subject Critical Infrastructure en_US
dc.title Jus ad bellum and malicious cyber operations: a critical infrastructure approach en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis
dc.type master thesis en_US
dc.degree.discipline Law en_US
dc.contributor.examiningcommittee Gallant, Michelle (Law) en_US
dc.degree.level Master of Human Rights (M.H.R.) en_US
dc.description.note May 2021 en_US


Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

View Statistics