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dc.contributor.supervisor Bassuoni, Mohamed (Civil Engineering) en_US
dc.contributor.author Sakr, Mohamed Ramadan Yousef
dc.date.accessioned 2020-09-14T18:39:22Z
dc.date.available 2020-09-14T18:39:22Z
dc.date.copyright 2020-09-08
dc.date.issued 2020-07 en_US
dc.date.submitted 2020-09-08T15:36:51Z en_US
dc.identifier.citation Sakr, M. R., Bassuoni, M. T., & Taha, M. R. (2019). Effect of Coatings on Concrete Resistance to Physical Salt Attack. ACI Materials Journal, 116(6). en_US
dc.identifier.citation Sakr, M. R., & Bassuoni, M. T. (2020). Effect of Nano-Based Coatings on Concrete under Aggravated Exposures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 32(10), 04020284. en_US
dc.identifier.citation Sakr, M.R., Bassuoni, M.T., Hooton, D., Drimalas, T., Haynes, H., & Folliard, K.J. Physical Salt Attack on Concrete: Mechanisms, Influential Factors, and Protection. ACI Materials Journal. (Accepted in Jun. 2020, In-press) en_US
dc.identifier.citation Sakr, M.R., Bassuoni, M.T., & Ghazy, A. Durability of Concrete Superficially Treated with Nano-silica and Silane/Nano-clay Coatings. Transportation Research Record. (Accepted in June. 2020, In-press) en_US
dc.identifier.citation Sakr, M.R., & Bassuoni, M.T. Silane and Methyl-methacrylate based Nanocomposites as Coatings for Concrete Exposed to Salt Solutions and Cyclic Environments. Cement and Concrete Composites. (Submitted in Mar. 2020, Under Review) en_US
dc.identifier.citation Sakr, M.R., & Bassuoni, M.T. Modeling of Parameters Affecting Physical Salt Attack of Concrete. ACI Materials Journal. (Submitted in May 2020, Under Review) en_US
dc.identifier.citation Sakr, M.R., & Bassuoni, M.T. Performance of Concrete under Physical Salt Attack Combined with Carbonation. Cement and Concrete Research. (Submitted in July 2020, Under Review) en_US
dc.identifier.citation Sakr, M.R., & Bassuoni, M.T. (2018) Surface Treatments for Concrete Under Physical Salt Attack. 6th International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures (ICDCS), Leeds, UK, July 2018 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1993/35065
dc.description.abstract Physical salt attack (PSA) is a key damage mechanism of concrete serving in salt-rich media under certain environments; yet, there is still lack of essential knowledge in the technical literature regarding different aspects of PSA. This thesis applied the response surface method to assess the influence of perspective- and performance-based parameters on PSA of 52 concrete mixtures. Also, the research program considered additional parameters that may alter the kinetics of PSA in service by adopting a holistic testing approach of concurrently exposing concrete to PSA and carbonation, simulating elements serving in heavy traffic and industrial zones. In addition, several surface treatments of concrete were tested/developed (nanocomposites) for mitigating PSA and also tested under salt-frost scaling to generalize their applicability. The results suggested limiting the water-to-binder ratio and binder content to a maximum and minimum of 0.40 and 400 kg/m3, respectively, regardless of the binder type. With extended curing, the use of fly ash or slag was beneficial at dosages below 25 and 30%, respectively, for binary binders and 35% for ternary blends combining both. Blended binders (28 to 35% replacement) comprising silica fume (≥ 8%) were capable of resisting severe PSA conditions. Mutual PSA and carbonation escalated the rate of surface scaling compared to single PSA. The wicking factor of concrete informatively captured the trends of damage for single and combined modes. Thermal, mineralogical, and microscopy analyses elucidated the coexistence of complex degradation processes in concrete subjected to combined PSA and carbonation, which was fundamentally different from salt crystallization in case of single PSA. Epoxy, ethyl silicate, and acrylic emulsion coatings protected concrete from PSA. Colloidal nano-silica (50% concentration) minimized PSA and salt-frost scaling. Silane mixed with 5% nano-clay or nano-silica mitigated PSA and salt-frost scaling damage of sound and pre-cracked concrete, with relatively better performance for nano-clay. Methyl-methacrylate/nanocomposites, at 5% dosage, were efficient at resisting PSA, but failed against salt-frost scaling. The synoptic outcomes from this thesis can be used as a basis for updating stipulations on PSA in the current ACI 201.2R document with limits on mixture design variables and suitable surface treatments for concrete protection against PSA. en_US
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Physical salt attack en_US
dc.subject Concrete durability en_US
dc.subject Surface treatments en_US
dc.subject Polymeric nanocomposites en_US
dc.subject Salt-frost scaling en_US
dc.subject Response surface method en_US
dc.title Physical salt attack on concrete: mechanisms, influential factors and mitigation en_US
dc.type doctoral thesis en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
dc.degree.discipline Civil Engineering en_US
dc.contributor.examiningcommittee El-Salakawy, Ehab (Civil Engineering) Ojo, Olanrewaju (Mechanical Engineering) Shehata, Medhat (Civil Engineering, Ryerson University) en_US
dc.degree.level Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) en_US
dc.description.note February 2021 en_US


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